Both forced air warming and fluid warming play a crucial part in preventing hypothermia and its documented complications in patients.

NICE (UK), SIAARTI (Italian) , SCIP (US) guidelines recommend using forced air warming to prevent perioperative hypothermia and that

fluids used during an operation should be warmed to normal body temperature. Please see Nice guidelines in clinical information

Hypothermia, defined by NICE as a core temperature below 36°C2 is common among surgical patients due to a range of factors. Cold temperatures in operating rooms, open cavities and often administration of cold IV fluids3  these factors combined with the fact that general anesthetics can impair normal thermoregulatory control to some extent4. Can account for the high incidence of hypothermia particularly among certain groups of patients.

An analysis conducted into the costs associated with hypothermia concluded that the cost of preventing intra-operative hypothermia is much less than the cost of treating the adverse outcomes associated with it 5. A further study found  treating the increased risk of surgical site infections can cost the NHS around £10,000 to treat.

References and further reading * All articles on patient warming are for unbiased information purposes only and are in no way endorsing celsius medical products unless otherwise stated

•1- Tanner,J (find proper link) Inadvertant Hypothermia and active warming for surgical patients, 2011, Vol 20, No 16-;article=BJN_20_16_966_968;format=pdf     But you have to pay £10 to download it, we have her permission can we download it, does Ed have copy on computer and just put the whole article on our website as  a PDF to download ??

•2-NICE clinical guidelines 65- Keeping patients warm before, during and after an
•SIAARTI & SCIP directive links (cannot find their guidelines on the web, does anyone in Celsius have  copies of them  or links to them?)
•3-Matsukawa T, Sessler DI, Sessler AM etc al, Heat Flow & Distribution during induction of general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1995;82(3):662-73
•4- Sessler DI and Kurz A. Mild Perioperative Hypothermia. Anesthesiology news, September 2007
•5-Mahoney CB and odom, J. maintaining intraoperative normathermia:A meta-analysis of outcomes with cost. AANA Journal/ April 1999/vol 67;No 2
•6- TannerJ, Khan D, Aplin C, Ball J, Thomas M, Bankart J. Post-discharge surveillance to identify colorectal surgical site infection rates and related costs. (2009) J Hosp Infect 72(3): 243-50Epub
•Torossian A. Thermal management during anaesthesia and thermoregulation standards for the prevention of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2008 Dec;22 94): 659-68.
•Insler ST, Sessler DI. Perioperative thermoregulation and temperature monitoring. Anesthesiol Clin.2006Dec;24(4):823-37
•Scott EM, Buckland R.A systematic review of intraoperative warming to prevent postoperative complications (2006) AORNJ 83(5): 1090-113
•Buggy DJ, Crossley AW. Thermoregulation, mild perioperative hypothermia and post- anaesthetic shivering.BR J Anaesth 2000;84:615-28
•Sessler DI. Complications and treatments of mild hypothermia. Anesthesiology2001;95:531-43
•Smith CE, Gerdes E, Sweda S, Myles C, Punjabi A, Pinchak AC, Hagen JF. Warming Intravenous fluids reduced perioperative hypothermia in women undergoing ambulatory gynecological surgery. Anesth Analg.1998 Jul;87(1):37-41